Courses

Biology Courses

BIOL 105     Biology and People  (4)

An exploration of the biological nature of people and their role in the biosphere that includes such topics as anatomy; physiology; and the genetic, nutritional, infectious, and environmental aspects of diseases. This course may count toward fulfilling the college's requirement for a non-laboratory science course. It cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 100.

BIOL 115     Conservation Biology  (4)

A study of the natural processes that control patterns of biological diversity in evolutionary and ecological time and a comprehensive examination of how human activity has resulted in the loss of biodiversity both regionally and globally. Non-laboratory course.

BIOL 118     Current Issues in Biology  (4)

This course focuses on timely and controversial topics presented in popular media. Topics vary with each offering but range from those having to do with human health and well-being to those having to do with survival and the future. This course cannot be taken for credit by students who have already completed BIOL 100, BIOL 105, or any biology course numbered 130 or higher and cannot be counted in the biology major.

BIOL 130     Field Investigations in Biology  (4)

A study of ecology, evolution and biological diversity, with an emphasis on scientific investigations in the natural areas in and around the university. The course, which is scheduled for one afternoon each week, meets the general education requirement for a natural science course but does not fulfill the requirement for a laboratory science course.

BIOL 133     Introductory Molecular Biology and Genetics  (4)

This course is an introductory study of the molecular and cellular basis of life, of the structure and function of cells, and of molecular genetics. BIOL 130 is not a prerequisite. Non-laboratory course. Open only to first-year students and sophomores.

BIOL 144     Directed Research  (2 or 4)

Supervised field or laboratory investigation in biology. This course is open only to freshmen and sophomores and cannot count in fulfillment of requirements for any major or minor. Open only to first-year students and sophomores. Prerequisite: Instructor prerequisite override required.

BIOL 180     Principles of Human Nutrition  (4)

This course provides an introduction to nutrition and focuses on the relationship between diet and health. Topics include physiological requirements and functions of protein, energy, and the major vitamins and minerals that are determinants of health and diseases in human populations. These basic concepts are applied to societal issues, including the role of diet in malnutrition, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Community engagement.

BIOL 200     Entomology  (4)

A study of insects and related arthropods, with special emphasis on the role of insects in forest and freshwater ecosystems. Lecture topics also include environmental, physiological, medical, veterinary, and agricultural entomology. Life history, ecology, and behavior are studied through field trips. Functional morphology and taxonomy are studied through laboratory exercises. Non-laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 201     Ornithology (Lab)  (4)

A comprehensive examination of avian biology. Lectures will include student presentations on readings from the scientific literature. Laboratory will emphasize field methods used to study wild birds. A field research project is required. This course cannot be taken for credit by students who have already completed BIOL 108. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 203     Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (Lab)  (4)

This course is a study of the anatomy of the Craniata, including the Hagfishes, and Vertebrates (jawless and jawed fishes, and the tetrapods). It emphasizes the evolution of homologous structures, and relates structure to function where applicable. This course also relates structures to adaptations for life in aquatic and terrestrial environments, and puts these changes into an evolutionary perspective. Laboratory course; studio laboratory. Prerequisite: One course in biology.

BIOL 209     Advanced Conservation Biology  (4)

A study of the scientific basis for conservation of biological diversity. A case-study approach will be used to address problems relating to species decline, habitat loss, and ecosystem degradation at local, regional, and global scales. Course will emphasize population modeling and GIS applications. Non-laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 210     Ecology (Lab)  (4)

A survey of the principles and applications of ecological science. Lecture will cover the ecology of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Lab will emphasize field experimentation in the local environment. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 211     Biodiversity: Pattern and Process (Lab)  (4)

A study of the diversity of life forms. The course examines major events in the evolution of life, the shape of the evolutionary tree of life, and the processes that underlie the origins of biological diversity. Laboratory, field, and statistical methods of biodiversity analysis are emphasized. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130 and BIOL 133.

BIOL 212     Entomology (Lab)  (4)

A study of insects and related arthropods, with special emphasis on the role of insects in natural and human-altered systems. Lecture topics also include environmental, physiological, medical, veterinary, and agricultural aspects of entomology. Life history, ecology, and behavior are studied through field trips and student projects. Functional morphology and taxonomy are examined through laboratory exercises and by assembling an insect collection. This course cannot be taken for credit by students who have already completed BIOL 200. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 213     Evolutionary Biology  (4)

A study of the evolutionary changes that have taken place in biological populations and the mechanisms that underlie these changes. Emphasis will be placed on the integration of data with evolutionary ideas and theory, and the application of evolutionary thought to other areas of biology. Non-laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 218     Principles of Animal Nutrition and Metabolism  (4)

Emphasizing the connection between diet and health across the animal kingdom, this course focuses on the application of biochemical principles and concepts to nutrition. Topics include physiological requirements; functions of macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals; and the relationship between those nutrients and disease. Prerequisite: BIOL 133.

BIOL 220     Reading the Landscape (Lab)  (4)

A study of how patterns in the current biological and physical landscape of the Cumberland Plateau can be explained by historical human land use and natural disturbances. Landscape change is examined through field investigation of specific places on the Domain conducted in combination with the analysis of aerial imagery and other geospatial data resources. The course also addresses how disturbance history can influence one's aesthetic valuation of the landscape and guide landscape-level conservation efforts. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 221     Environmental Physiology of Plants (Lab)  (4)

A study of plant physiological processes and how adaptations shared by plant functional groups are shaped by environment. The course covers energy and carbon balance, water and nutrient relations, and interactions with other organisms and physiological responses to environmental stress. Labs focus on instrumentation and field methods used to test ecophysiological hypotheses. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 222     Advanced Conservation Biology (Lab)  (4)

An examination of the negative impact of human activity on biological diversity and an exploration of how conservation science can be used to ameliorate that impact. Case studies are used to investigate such issues as deforestation, exotic species invasions, habitat fragmentation, endangered species protection, natural area management, and habitat restoration. Students examine critically the role of science in public policy decision-making as it relates to the protection of biodiversity in the United States. The course involves student-led discussions, guest speakers, field trips and independent research. Laboratory exercises explore the use of field techniques, GIS analysis, and population modeling as problem-solving tools in conservation biology. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 209. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 223     Genetics (Lab)  (4)

A study of fundamental principles of heredity including molecular aspects and evolutionary implications of these concepts. Prerequisite: BIOL 133.

BIOL 224     Genetics  (4)

A study of fundamental principles of heredity including molecular aspects and evolutionary implications of these concepts. Prerequisite: BIOL 133.

BIOL 229     Biology of Human Reproduction  (4)

This course focuses on understanding the complex mechanisms that allow life to create life. Primarily focusing on human reproduction, it ontogenetically tracks the progression from developing a sexual phenotype, attaining fertility, achieving fecundity, providing postnatal care, and senescence of fertility. This course integrates many biological fields including anatomy, physiology, endocrinology, neurology, cell biology, and behavioral studies to paint a comprehensive view of sexual reproduction. Prerequisite: BIOL 133.

BIOL 232     Human Health and the Environment (Lab)  (4)

A course integrating concepts in ecology and public health through the study of environmental threats to human health. Topics include population growth and food security, toxicity and toxins, food borne illness, emerging disease, waste and wastewater, air pollution and climate change. Students explore the interaction of poverty, environmental degradation and disease through projects examining local environmental health issues. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 233     Molecular Cell Biology  (4)

An extension of topics introduced in BIOL 133, this course is a study of the molecular and cellular basis of life, of the structure and function of cells, and of molecular genetics at an intermediate level. This course may not be taken for credit by students who have completed BIOL 321. Prerequisite: BIOL 133. Prerequisite or Corequisite: CHEM 120 or CHEM 150.

BIOL 236     Biochemistry  (4)

A one semester survey of biochemistry. The following topics will be addressed: biochemical primary literature and internet resources, bioenergetics, acid-base balance, protein structure and function, enzyme function and kinetics, metabolism, topics in physiological biochemistry, and topics in molecular biology. Non-laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 133 and CHEM 201.

BIOL 237     Freshwater Biology (Lab)  (4)

A study of the biology of freshwater ecosystems. Students examine interactions between freshwater species and their aquatic environments, as well as among one another, in the context of physical and chemical limitations associated with freshwater habitats. Laboratory emphasizes common techniques for inquiry, and a field research project is required. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 238     Coastal Ecology  (4)

A field immersion course that examines the ecology and natural history of coastal ecosystems through intensive field exploration and research. Course features a Spring Break program at the University of Georgia Marine Institute on Sapelo Island studying dunes, maritime forests and salt marshes and learning firsthand about state and federal coastal conservation programs. Course meetings before and after the Sapelo program will provide background preparation and allow students to complete their field research projects. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 241     Rainforests and Coral Reefs  (4)

This course provides a fundamental understanding of the ecology and natural history of coral reef and tropical rainforest systems using Belize as a case study. There is a 10-day, field immersion experience during Spring Break that takes students to two remote Belizean field stations - one on the island of South Water Caye and the other in the interior rainforest of the Maya Mountains. Students study these two systems through extensive field exploration and research. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or BIOL 130.

BIOL 243     Molecular Methods (Lab)  (4)

This course focuses on close readings of the primary and secondary literature in the field of cellular and molecular biology. Experimental methodologies are a primary focus of this course as they pertain to design and analysis of techniques in the molecular biology field. Both in lecture and in laboratory, analysis of writing style and rationale for experimental design is evaluated. Prerequisite: BIOL 133 and (CHEM 120 or CHEM 150).

BIOL 255     Herpetology (Lab)  (4)

A comprehensive examination of the diversity, ecology, and evolution of amphibians and reptiles. Students examine the systematics, biogeography, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecology, and conservation of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory emphasizes survey and monitoring techniques. A field research project is required. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 260     Cave Biology  (4)

An examination of the biology of caves and other subterranean habitats. The course focuses on the structure and function of cave ecosystems and the evolutionary biology of cave animals. It also involves field trips to caves in the area. Prerequisite: BIOL 210 or BIOL 213.

BIOL 270     Human Anatomy (Lab)  (4)

This course focuses on basic anatomical structures of the human body and how distinct organ systems are organized at the tissue and cellular levels. Emphasis is placed on understanding structure-function relationships in the human body, how they interact in a network, and how those relationships are perturbed in the development of human disease. The laboratory component addresses practical considerations relating to anatomy and includes medical imaging technology emphasizing three-dimensional relationships. Prerequisite: BIOL 133.

BIOL 275     Histology and Microanatomy  (4)

This course provides a hands-on understanding of the structural and functional organization of animal tissues and organs at the cellular and subcellular levels. Students apply knowledge gained from lectures in interpreting and describing structures visualized in collecting, processing, and analyzing mouse tissues. Prerequisite: One course in biology and CHEM 120 or CHEM 150..

BIOL 280     Molecular Genetics (Lab)  (4)

Designed for students interested in molecular mechanisms by which cellular processes are controlled in eukaryotic cells. Topics include introduction to molecular genetic techniques and genomics, in-depth study of structures and chromosomes, transcriptional control of gene expression, signal transduction pathways relating to gene regulation, and abnormal regulatory processes that lead to disease. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 133.

BIOL 300     Biology of Aging (Lab)  (4)

A study of the molecular and physiological processes that govern our longevity. This course integrates seminar and laboratory formats, using model organisms to examine the impact upon aging of dietary restriction, drugs that might induce longevity, genetics, and reproduction. Full use is made of relevant primary literature. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 307     Mechanistic Biochemistry (Lab)  (4)

An examination of all aspects of protein science, including protein biosynthesis, protein structure, and the mechanisms of enzyme catalysis, with particular emphasis on the biochemistry of enzyme catalysis. Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three and one-half hours. Prerequisite: CHEM 202.

BIOL 310     Plant Evolution and Systematics (Lab)  (4)

A comprehensive survey of trends in vascular plant diversity and the evolutionary mechanisms underlying these trends. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 311     Behavioral Ecology (Lab)  (4)

This course studies animal behavior from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Topics include the development of behavior, predator-prey interactions, communication, foraging strategies, cooperation, mating behavior, and parental care. Lectures include discussions of the scientific literature. Laboratories emphasize methods used to study animal behavior, including hypothesis testing, experimental design, and statistical analysis. A research project is required. Laboratory course. BIOL 213 is a recommended prerequisite but not required. Prerequisite: BIOL 130.

BIOL 312     General and Human Physiology  (4)

This course covers general physiological concepts such as homeostasis, control theory, and system analysis. It also takes a detailed view of how these general principles apply specifically to various physiological systems in humans and other mammals in some cases. Systems such as respiration, circulation, digestion, metabolism, thermoregulation, and excretion are studied at cellular, tissue and whole system levels. In cases where form is especially critical to function, anatomy is also covered, although there is no human dissection. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 314. Prerequisite: BIOL 233 and (CHEM 120 or CHEM 150).

BIOL 313     Ecosystems and Global Change (Lab)  (4)

A study of how the cycling of elements among the atmosphere, soil, water and living organisms sustains ecosystems, and how disruptions in these cycles, both natural and human-induced, bring about environmental change. In the field, students evaluate the sustainability of land use by quantifying elemental cycles in natural and human-altered ecosystems. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: One course in chemistry and one course in biology.

BIOL 314     General and Human Physiology (Lab)  (4)

This course covers general physiological concepts such as homeostasis, control theory, and system analysis. It also takes a detailed view of how these general principles apply specifically to the various physiological systems in humans and, in some cases, to other mammals. Systems such as respiration, circulation, digestion, metabolism, thermoregulation, and excretion are studied at cellular, tissue, and whole system levels. In cases where form is especially critical to function, anatomy is also covered although there is no human dissection. Laboratory course. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 312. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 315     Advanced Topics in Ecology and Biodiversity  (4)

A study of advanced topics in ecology and biodiversity, with an emphasis on integrating study of the scientific literature with field research. Open only to seniors pursuing majors in biology or ecology and biodiversity. Prerequisite: BIOL 210 or BIOL 213.

BIOL 316     Biochemistry of Metabolism and Molecular Biology (Lab)  (4)

A study of the biochemical reactions of eukaryotic cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, focusing on enzyme regulation and function, protein structure, and selected topics in molecular biology and physiological biochemistry. Laboratory course. Students who have received credit for BIOL 236 or BIOL 317 may not receive credit for this course. Prerequisite: BIOL 233 and (BIOL 223 or BIOL 243) and CHEM 201.

BIOL 317     Biochemistry of Metabolism and Molecular Biology  (4)

A study of the biochemical reactions of eukaryotic cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, focusing on enzyme regulation and function, protein structure and selected topics in molecular biology, and physiological biochemistry. Students who have received credit for BIOL236, BIOL316, or CHEM316 may not receive credit for this course. Prerequisite: CHEM 201. Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 318     Molecular Revolutions in Medicine  (4)

A survey of major molecular mechanisms of human disease, including approaches to diagnosing, preventing, treating, and curing disease conditions. This course features an overview of basic human genetics, an introduction to pharmacological methodologies in drug design and the FDA approval process and a survey of current technologies associated with gene therapy and stem cell treatments. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 328.

BIOL 319     Cancer Cell Biology (Lab)  (4)

This course is an overview of cancer development at the cellular and molecular levels. It uses a survey of primary scientific literature to cover the basic cell biology of cancer. Topics include growth control, angiogenesis, invasion, metabolism and cell signaling as they relate to the progress of cancer. Laboratory course. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 320. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 320     Cancer Cell Biology  (4)

This course is an overview of cancer development at the cellular and molecular levels. It uses a survey of primary scientific literature to cover the basic cell biology of cancer. Topics include growth control, angiogenesis, invasion, metabolism and cell signaling as they relate to the progress of cancer. Non-laboratory course. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 319. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 322     Genes and Behavior  (4)

This course focuses on our current understanding of how genes affect behavior and the interacting role of the environment. Topics include movement, foraging, social behaviors, and diseases of behavior. Lectures, including discussions of the scientific literature, focus on key issues and recent findings, as well as the experimental approaches used, in a range of animals including humans. Non-laboratory course. BIOL 213 and/or BIOL 301 are recommended but not required. Prerequisite: BIOL 213 or BIOL 223 or BIOL 224 or BIOL 243.

BIOL 323     Environment and Development  (4)

An integrative study of how environment affects development, with emphasis on underlying molecular and cell signaling pathways. The course explores links between environmental conditions during development and lifetime outcomes, such as reproductive success and disease risk. Discussions address implications for human health, ecosystem function, and evolutionary patterns. BIOL 233 is recommended but not required. Prerequisite: BIOL 133.

BIOL 325     Biology of Aging  (4)

A study of the molecular and physiological processes that govern our longevity. Seminar course focused on a careful examination of the primary literature. Demonstrations using living animals illustrate the effects of dietary restriction, potential longevity-inducing drugs, genetics, and reproduction on aging. No laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 233 and (BIOL 223 or BIOL 224).

BIOL 328     Molecular Revolutions in Medicine (Lab)  (4)

A survey of major molecular mechanisms of human disease, which includes approaches to diagnose, prevent, treat, and cure disease conditions. This course covers an overview of basic human genetics, an introduction to pharmacological methodologies in drug design and FDA approved process, and an overview of current technologies involving gene therapy and stem cells. Laboratory course. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 318. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 330     Immunology (Lab)  (4)

An introduction to the vertebrate immune system with emphasis on molecular and cellular events. Topics include organization of the immune system, structure and function of immunoglobulins, genetics of immunoglobulin diversity, clonal selection theory, complement-mediated processes, the major histocompatibility complex, cell-mediated responses, immunization, innate immunity, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. Laboratory course. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 331. Prerequisite: BIOL 233 and BIOL 243.

BIOL 331     Immunology  (4)

An introduction to the vertebrate immune system with emphasis on molecular and cellular events. Topics include organization of the immune systems, structure and function of immunoglobulins, genetics of immunoglobulin diversity, clonal selection theory, complement-mediated processes, the major histocompatibility complex, cell-mediated responses, immunization, innate immunity, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. Non-laboratory course. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 330. Prerequisite: BIOL 233 and BIOL 243.

BIOL 333     Developmental Biology (Lab)  (4)

A study of animal development with an emphasis on gametogenesis, morphogenesis, and differentiation of the primary germ layers and their derivatives, as well as developmental mechanisms at cellular and subcellular levels. Laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 233 and (BIOL 223 or BIOL 224).

BIOL 334     Developmental Biology  (4)

A study of animal development with an emphasis on gametogenesis, morphogenesis, and differentiation of the primary germ layers and their derivatives, as well as developmental mechanisms at cellular and subcellular levels. Non-laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 233 and (BIOL 223 or BIOL 224).

BIOL 335     Advanced Topics in Evolutionary Biology  (4)

This course will examine several advanced topics in evolutionary biology. Topics will vary by semester, but may include such topics as life-history evolution, speciation, levels of selection, social evolution, and the debate surrounding the extended evolutionary synthesis. Reading of the primary literature is a large component of this course. Non-laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 213 or BIOL 224). Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 223.

BIOL 339     Microbiology  (4)

This course focuses on bacteria, and emphasizes how microbial metabolism, structure, genetics, and reproduction drive their ubiquity and evolution. Concepts such as mutualism, antibiotic resistance, immunity and vaccines, and virulence are explored through reading and discussion of primary literature. Non-laboratory course. Students who have received credit for BIOL 340 may not receive credit for this course. Prerequisite: BIOL 133 and (CHEM 120 or CHEM 150).

BIOL 340     Microbiology (Lab)  (4)

This course focuses on bacteria, and emphasizes how microbial metabolism, structure, genetics, and reproduction drive their ubiquity and evolution. Concepts such as mutualism, antibiotic resistance, immunity and vaccines, and virulence are explored through reading and discussion of primary literature. Laboratory course. Students who have received credit for BIOL 339 may not receive credit for this course. Prerequisite: BIOL 133 and (CHEM 120 or CHEM 150).

BIOL 350     Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry of Animals (Lab)  (4)

An examination of the interaction between an animal's environment and the animal's physiology and biochemistry. Of special interest is how environmental change causes short-term adaptation and long-term evolutionary change in physiological and biochemical traits. The types of such changes that take place, and the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for them, are studied through comparison of animals found in various moderate and extreme environments. Laboratory course. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 351. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 351     Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry of Animals  (4)

An examination of the interaction between an animal's environment and the animal's physiology and biochemistry. Of special interest is how environmental change causes short-term adaptation and long-term evolutionary change in physiological and biochemical traits. The types of such changes that take place, and the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for them, are studied through comparison of animals found in various moderate and extreme environments. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 350. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 360     Virology  (4)

This course focuses on viral molecular biology and applied concepts, such as innate and adaptive immunity, virulence and pathogenesis, emerging viruses, epidemics and pandemics, and the development of antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. RNA viruses, such as Zika, Ebola, coronaviruses, and influenza, comprise the majority of the viruses discussed. Reading of the primary literature is a large component of this course. Non-laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 233.

BIOL 388     Epigenetics  (4)

This course explores the field of epigenetics in a discussion-based format, using both primary and secondary scientific literature. Topics focus on cellular differentiation and pathologies derived from the misregulation of epigenetic systems in the cell, including imprinting during development and mutations involving DNA methylation of CpG islands during cancer progression. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 389. Prerequisite: BIOL 223 or BIOL 224 or BIOL 280.

BIOL 389     Epigenetics (Lab)  (4)

This course explores the field of epigenetics in a discussion-based format, using both primary and secondary scientific literature. Topics focus on cellular differentiation and pathologies derived from the misregulation of epigenetic systems in the cell, including imprinting during development and mutations involving DNA methylation of CpG islands during cancer progression. This course cannot be taken for credit if the student has already received credit for BIOL 388. Prerequisite: BIOL 223 or BIOL 224 or BIOL 280.

BIOL 399     Special Topics  (2 or 4)

A seminar on a topic related to biology. Prerequisite: Prerequisites vary by topic..

BIOL 401     Biology Tutorial  (2)

Supervised study projects involving a topical survey of existing texts and/or periodical literature. Prerequisite: Instructor prerequisite override required.

BIOL 424     Senior Seminar  (4)

A study of advanced topics in biology with emphasis on critical evaluation of literature and speaking. Skills for oral communication are explored through multiple formats. Open only to seniors pursuing majors in biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 223 or BIOL 224.

BIOL 444     Independent Study  (2 or 4)

Supervised field or laboratory investigation. Prerequisite: Instructor prerequisite override required.

BIOL 490     Principles of Neuroscience  (4)

General neuroscience seminar: Lectures, readings and discussion of selected topics in neuroscience. Emphasis will be on how approaches at the molecular, cellular, physiological and organismal levels can lead to understanding of neuronal and brain function. No single individual may receive credit for both this course and either version of Neuropsychology at Sewanee (PSYC 254 and PSYC 255). Admission to the Sewanee-At-Yale Directed Research Program required. This course is only available through the Yale Directed Research Program.

BIOL 492     History of Modern Neuroscience  (4)

Survey of classical papers that have been the foundation for the rise of modern neuroscience since the 1950s. Areas covered range from genes and proteins through cells and systems to behavior. Classes combine overviews of different areas with discussions of selected classical papers. Emphasis is on how convergence of techniques, concepts, and personalities has been the basis for major advances. Admission to the Sewanee-At-Yale Directed Research Program required. This course only available through the Yale Directed Research Program. Prerequisite: PSYC 254.

BIOL 498     Research Methods Seminar  (4)

This seminar is organized around presentations of individual research projects, emphasizing detailed critique of project designs, findings, and conclusions. Students also review reports of empirical research written by other students in the seminar to develop their skills in both writing and critiquing research reports. Admission to the Sewanee-At-Yale Directed Research Program required. This course is only available through the Sewanee-At-Yale Directed Research Program. With the approval of program director and the biology department, this course may be listed as BIOL 498. Prerequisite: An introductory psychology or introductory biology course and approval of the Sewanee-at-Yale program director..

BIOL 499     Directed Research  (4)

Students conduct research under the direction of a faculty member on a topic of mutual interest. Typically culminates in a written research report. Admission to the Sewanee-At-Yale Directed Research Program required. This course is only available through the Sewanee-At-Yale Directed Research Program. With the approval of program director and the biology department, this course may be listed as BIOL 499.